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焊接的工作原理
更新時間:2018-07-30 17:25:45 字號:T|T
焊接的工作原理時間:2017-04-15 作者:四川西冶新材料股份有限公司 電焊是我們工業中常見的一種方式,那么電焊作業中我們離不開焊條的作
    電焊是我們工業中常見的一種方式,那么電焊作業中我們離不開焊條的作用啦!電焊原理其實***是:由我們常用的220V電壓或者380V的工業用電通過電焊機里的減壓器降低了電壓,增強了電流,利用電能產生的巨大熱量融化鋼鐵,焊條的融入使鋼鐵之間的融合性更高,使他們連起來達到我們想要的效果。
    手工電弧焊使用的電焊條,由藥皮和焊芯兩部分組成。焊接的時候,電焊條作為一個電極,一方面起傳導電流和引燃電弧的作用,使電焊條與基本金屬間產生持續的、穩定的電弧,以提供熔化焊所必需的熱量。另一方面,電焊條又作為填充金屬加到焊縫中去,成為焊縫金屬的主要成分。因此,電焊條的組成物與電焊條質量,將直接影響焊縫金屬的化學成分、機械性能和物理性質。另外,焊條對于焊接過程的穩定性、焊接生產率、焊縫的外表質量等也有很大的影響。
  焊芯是焊條的金屬芯。為了******焊縫的質量,對焊芯中各種金屬元素的含量,都有嚴格的規定。特別是對有害雜質(如硫、磷等)有嚴格的限制,焊芯金屬的質量應優于原材料。
   沒有藥皮的光桿焊條是不能進行電弧焊接的。這是因為電弧穩定性很差,飛濺很大,焊縫成形不好。
   (1)確保電弧穩定燃燒,使焊接過程正常進行;
  (2)利用藥皮反應后產生的氣體,保護電弧和熔池,防止空氣中的有害氣體(如氮、氧等)侵入熔池,如這些氣體侵入會造成焊材產生裂紋和氣孔等,使焊接達不到理想效果。
  (3)藥皮熔化后形成熔渣,覆蓋在焊縫表面上保護焊縫金屬,使焊縫金屬緩慢冷卻,有助于氣體逸出,防止氣孔產生,改善焊縫的組織和性能;
  (4)藥皮熔化后會進行各種冶金反應,如脫氧、去硫、去磷等,從而提高焊縫質量,減少合金元素燒損;
  (5)通過藥皮將所需要的合金元素摻加到焊縫金屬中去,改進和控制焊縫金屬的化學成分,以獲得所希望的性能;
  (6)藥皮在焊接時形成套管,增加電弧吹力,集中電弧熱量,促進熔滴過渡到熔池,有利于完成焊接過程.



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